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The Legend of Atlantis Part I: Atlantis in History
Part III: Edgar Cayce's Atlantis | Part IV: Atlantis Rising

The Antediluvian World | The Rise & Fall of Atlantis | Atlantis Links | Atlantis Books

Zeus destroying wicked Atlantis. Image from Atlantis: The Antediluvian World.

fter the Flood, Atlantis lay sunken and destroyed, hundreds of fathoms under the surface of the ocean in whose name — Atlantic — it is still remembered. Whether or not all life on Earth died as a result of this flood — assuming that it was the Great Flood of the Bible that accompanied the sinking of Atlantis and not some lesser flood — it is clear that all life on Atlantis was utterly destroyed as a result.

But why was Atlantis destroyed? Was it hubris against the gods that caused their downfall? Was it the "arrogance of power" mentioned by Solon that brought about their destruction? Was it divine judgement, or did the power-mad Atlanteans tap into forces beyond their comprehension, and bring about their own destruction? Perhaps it was a combination of reasons. Or perhaps it was something even more sinister, something that the Great Flood had been sent to blot out from human memory, to save us from something that man was never meant to know.

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"There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown. And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence. And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth. (Gen. 6:4-5, 11-12) Image from Dore's Illustrations for "Paradise Lost".

According to the Bible, the world before the Flood, "the antediluvian world", was evil beyond redemption: "And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." (Gen. 6:5) God saw that mankind had become corrupt beyond redemption, and decided that it had to be utterly destroyed, save a remnant of righteous souls whom he would save in an ark. This punishment was decreed not only because man was committing evil acts, as mankind always does evil in one form or another. No, the period of time in which Noah lived was a particularly wicked time, when "The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence." (Gen. 6:12) The nations were continually at war with each other, causing great pollution and devastation to the Earth in the process to the point where mankind — which had originally been created to till the soil and make Earth a paradise, (Gen. 1:28, Enuma Elish 6:1-8) — was instead destroying it (cf. also Rev. 11:18).

However, though mankind's thoughts were evil continually, and men were constantly warring with their neighbors, destroying each other and corrupting the Earth, by far the most sinister portion of the equation was the fact that mankind apparently was being genetically altered by divine beings in order to create a race of giants known as the Nephilim.

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Azazel leading the rebel angels to Earth. Image from Dore's Illustrations for "Paradise Lost" .

Genesis 6 contains a strange passage that has always been a source of discomfort to biblical scholars, its inferences being restricted to hushed debate in informal circles, and always outside the realm of scholarly discourse. In it is described something totally out of the ordinary, a story of events and personages that to this day are denied and denigrated by mainstream scholarship as misinterpretations of real events, or as the writings of overimaginative zealots. The subject of this strange passage is a group of beings known as the "sons of God", who came down from heaven before the Flood (and afterwards) to mingle with mankind:

1And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, 2That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose. 3And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years. 4There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown. (Gen. 6:1-4)

The term translated as "giants" in the text of Genesis is actually "Nephilim", which comes from the Hebrew root n f l, "to come down" or "to fall down". Apparently these beings were divine in nature, as the term Nephilim connotes they were the offspring of those "sons of God" who had come down from heaven. The "sons of God" are generally considered by biblical scholars to be "fallen angels" — those angels that rebelled from God and came down to Earth to found their own kingdoms apart from the direct control of God. To achieve this end, they created the Nephilim: breeds of giant, hybrid men that were nearly twice the size of normal men. These giants were bred to be vicious, brutal and, some believe, soulless, killers. These armies of giant, soulless (and compassionless) monsters would then enable the fallen angels to conquer the smaller, weaker versions of man whom God had created, turning us into a race of slaves, a source of food and, eventually, exterminating us.

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"And Semjaza, who was [one of the leaders of the fallen angels], said unto them: 'I fear ye will not indeed agree to do this deed, and I alone shall have to pay the penalty of a great sin.' And they all answered him and said: 'Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by mutual imprecations not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.' Then sware they all together and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. And they were in all two hundred." - 1 Enoch 6:4-7 Image from Dore's Illustrations for "Paradise Lost".

There are extrabiblical sources describing the sons of God and their giant offspring as well. The Apocrypha, especially the Book of Enoch, are the most famous of these. The Dead Sea Scrolls also contain some references. All together, these extrabiblical sources have proven invaluable in helping illuminate ancient beliefs concerning these mysterious beings. As Judd H. Burton explains in his article, "Nephilim",

The origination of the Nephilim begins with a story of the fallen angels. Shemhazai, an angel of high rank, led a sect of angels in a descent to earth to instruct humans in righteousness. The tutelage went on for a few centuries, but soon the angels pined for the human females. After lusting, the fallen angels instructed the women in magic and conjuring, mated with them, and produced hybrid offspring: the Nephilim. The Nephilim were gigantic in stature. Their strength was prodigious and their appetites immense. Upon devouring all of humankind's resources, they began to consume humans themselves. The Nephilim attacked and oppressed humans and were the cause of massive destruction on the earth.1

Krista M. Baker also covers this subject thoroughly in her article, "Watchers/Nephilim (Nephidim)":

A different interpretation of this passage concerning the sin of the angels was that they revolted against God, and because of this, they were cast down. Apocryphal texts give more complete accounts of the fall of the angels. 1 Enoch gives an account of the fall of the Angels from heaven. Chapter 6 talks of how the angels saw and lusted after the daughters of men. The angels descended on Mount Hermon during the days of Jared. There were 19 leaders mentioned in 1 Enoch, who were also called 'the chiefs of ten.' Once they reached the earth ... the Angels then taught women charms, enchantments, the cutting of roots, and the knowledge of plants. They taught men how to make various weapons and armor, and also arts and sciences.
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Four archangels leading the heavenly host against the forces of evil. Image from Gustave Dore's "A Crowned Virgin: A Vision of John" (Rev. 12) in The Dore Bible Illustrations.

These acts led to an increase in lawlessness and warfare. The men of earth then cried out to heaven, and the four archangels (Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel) cried out to God. In response, God sent Uriel to warn Noah that there would soon be a flood that would destroy the wickedness on earth. Raphael was commanded to bind Azazel hand and foot, and to cast him into the a hole in the desert (Duda'el) that the Lord had made. Raphael threw rugged and sharp rocks and covered Azazel's face so that he would not see light. Michael was commanded to bound Semyaza and his associates in the valleys of the earth. They will remain there until the day of judgment when he will be cast into the fire.2

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"And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark." (Gen. 7:23) Image from Gustave Dore's "The Dove Sent from the Ark" (Gen. 8:11) in The Dore Bible Illustrations.

So, it was the interference of the fallen angels — also known as the "Watchers" in The Book of Enoch — that brought about the violence and corruption of the Earth that moved God to bring the Flood. Instead of giving mankind the gifts of charity, kindness and love, which God preferred and were ultimately much better for man, the Watchers, and their evil progeny, the Nephilim, gave mankind gifts of technology which, though they seemed to be desirable on the face of it — "pleasing to the eye" — they ultimately proved to be deadly. The actual effect of the increase of technology was, instead of improving man's lot, it merely gave him the ability to kill his fellow man more efficiently. These gifts had another unfortunate side effect, which was pollution, the by-product of mass industrialization that is part and parcel of any technological advance. Thus, the gifts of technology, which at first appeared to beneficial, instead brought great destruction, and both man's heart, the Earth, and even mankind's own genetic structure had become irretrievably corrupt. Therefore, in order to save both the Earth and mankind from becoming irretrievably corrupted, God decided that the antediluvian world had to be destroyed, and He sent the Flood to cleanse the Earth from the evil of the Watchers.

In the Critias, the second of the two dialogues of Plato, there are some interesting descriptions of how Atlantis was founded, and some hints as to why it was destroyed. In the Critias, Critias again takes up the story of ancient Atlantis that he had begun in the Timaeus, beginning with a recollection of the hoary antiquity of the Atlantean saga, particularly the war between the Atlanteans and the Athenians, the last great world war of the antediluvian world:

Let me begin by observing first of all, that nine thousand was the sum of years which had elapsed since the war which was said to have taken place between those who dwelt outside the Pillars of Heracles and all who dwelt within them; this war I am going to describe. Of the combatants on the one side, the city of Athens was reported to have been the leader and to have fought out the war; the combatants on the other side were commanded by the kings of Atlantis, which, as was saying, was an island greater in extent than Libya and Asia, and when afterwards sunk by an earthquake, became an impassable barrier of mud to voyagers sailing from hence to any part of the ocean.3

As we saw in Part I, the Athenians had successfully repelled an assault by the Atlanteans on the continent of Europe. The valiant Athenians had been the last, desperate hope of the continent, all of the other nations having already capitulated to the terror of the Atlantean onslaught, and all of Europe and Asia hung in the balance. However, valiant Athens shone forth in the excellence of her virtue and strength, and won against all odds, driving the Atlanteans back into the sea and liberating all within the pillars. The Atlanteans then limped back to their home ports, the best of their armies bested, and their national pride humbled. Though it appeared that the world had been saved from slavery, in a single day and night both the pride of the Athenians and the islands of Atlantis fell into the sea. It was this disaster, some believe, that was part of the Great Flood of Noah, and the destruction of the antediluvian world.

But why did the destruction occur? As we saw in the biblical account, before the Flood divine beings had come down to Earth and had integrated with mankind, to mankind's great detriment and God's distinct displeasure. These events and their consequences were also recounted in related texts such as the Book of Enoch and the Dead Sea Scrolls. But is there any evidence from the traditions of other nations of this sort of activity having occurred in the pre-Flood world? Indeed, Plato describes in the Timaeus these events having occurred in Atlantis in detail.

The Septuagint, the Greek version of the Bible also known as the LXX, is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament. It is older than the more established Massoretic Text, and is frequently used by biblical scholars to shed additional light on our modern translations of the Bible. Though there are many areas where the Septuagint can help us find a deeper understanding of the biblical text, most relevant to the present study is an enigmatic passage in the book of Deuteronomy, specifically, Deuteronomy 32:8. Mike Heiser explains in his excellent paper, "Deuteronomy 32:8 and the Sons of God":

Moses' farewell song in Deuteronomy 32:1-43 is one of the more intriguing portions of Deuteronomy, and has received a good deal of attention among scholars, primarily for its poetic features, archaic orthography and morphology, and text-critical problems. Among the textual variants present in the Song of Moses, one in Deut. 32:8 stands out as particularly fascinating. The verse is rendered as follows in the NASB: "When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, when He separated the sons of man, He set the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of the sons of Israel."Most witnesses to the LXX in verse 8,however, read bene elohim, ["sons of God"].4

As Heiser explains, several variant texts, specifically the Septuagint, say "sons of God" instead of "sons of Israel". This is the preferred reading, as "sons of Israel" makes little sense in context. "sons of God" also makes more sense theologically, as these would be the same "sons of God" that, as we have discovered in our analysis of Genesis 6, were the fallen angels that had come down (or were thrown down) from heaven, and had then founded kingdoms on earth. Basically, what the passage is saying, if we are to take the reading "sons of God" as the correct one, that control over the Earth is basically divided up among the fallen angels, the "Watchers", each of which rules over a specific region of the Earth.

Many scholars dispute this idea, however, not only based upon textual criticism ("sons of Israel" vs. "sons of God" variant readings), but also based upon a general disbelief in the supernatural. Most people find it uncomfortable to believe that their country is ruled over by a demon prince, but the Bible clearly says that is true. Daniel, for example, was visited by an angel who had been opposed by "the prince of Persia", the fallen angel that controlled the region of Persia. "Then said he unto me, 'Fear not, Daniel: for from the first day that thou didst set thine heart to understand, and to chasten thyself before thy God, thy words were heard, and I am come for thy words. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia.' " (Dan. 10:12-13) This same angel also mentions a "prince of Greece" that would come after he left (Dan. 10:20). This might have been a reference to the soon-coming conquest of the Persian Empire by Alexander, which supports the idea that these fallen rulers fight amongst themselves for control over each other's territories.

Critias also supports this concept, that a group of divine beings in ancient times, "the gods of the nations", had divided up rule over the earth amongst themselves, a rule that continues today:

In the days of old the gods had the whole earth distributed among them by allotment. There was no quarrelling; for you cannot rightly suppose that the gods did not know what was proper for each of them to have, or, knowing this, that they would seek to procure for themselves by contention that which more properly belonged to others. They all of them by just apportionment obtained what they wanted, and peopled their own districts; and when they had peopled them they tended us, their nurselings and possessions, as shepherds tend their flocks, excepting only that they did not use blows or bodily force, as shepherds do, but governed us like pilots from the stern of the vessel, which is an easy way of guiding animals, holding our souls by the rudder of persuasion according to their own pleasure;-thus did they guide all mortal creatures.5

According to Critias, before the beginning of human history, a group of divine beings was given authority over various regions of the Earth. These divine beings took control the people who lived within their territories like shepherds control sheep, using the winds of trend and fashion to manipulate the peoples within their sphere of control. Critias next becomes more specific, giving the names of the specific deities that control Athens:

Now different gods had their allotments in different places which they set in order. Hephaestus and Athene, who were brother and sister, and sprang from the same father, having a common nature, and being united also in the love of philosophy and art, both obtained as their common portion this land, which was naturally adapted for wisdom and virtue; and there they implanted brave children of the soil, and put into their minds the order of government; their names are preserved, but their actions have disappeared by reason of the destruction of those who received the tradition, and the lapse of ages.6

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Poseidon, Greek god of the sea and founder of Atlantis. Poseidon was one of a triad of the most powerful Greek deities, which included Zeus, Poseidon and Hades. Image from

Each of these divine beings received an allotted share of the Earth's surface, which they controlled absolutely, though not openly. Whereas "Hephaestus" and "Athene" were given rule over the region of Greece, mighty "Poseidon", one of the three most powerful gods of the Greek Pantheon, was given as his lot the island of Atlantis. Critias continues, giving a fairly detailed description of Poseidon's allotted lands:

I have before remarked in speaking of the allotments of the gods, that they distributed the whole earth into portions differing in extent, and made for themselves temples and instituted sacrifices. And Poseidon, receiving for his lot the island of Atlantis, begat children by a mortal woman, and settled them in a part of the island, which I will describe. Looking towards the sea, but in the centre of the whole island, there was a plain which is said to have been the fairest of all plains and very fertile. Near the plain again, and also in the centre of the island at a distance of about fifty stadia, there was a mountain not very high on any side. In this mountain there dwelt one of the earth born primeval men of that country, whose name was Evenor, and he had a wife named Leucippe, and they had an only daughter who was called Cleito. The maiden had already reached womanhood, when her father and mother died; Poseidon fell in love with her and had intercourse with her.7

Point for point the story of Atlantis matches with Moses and Enoch's accounts of the antediluvian world, and how divine beings had intermarried with humans, giving birth to semi-divine giants. Poseidon is said here to have married a human woman, and her name is even given: Cleito. Cleito bore him 10 sons, and he arranged and populated the island of Atlantis with such florae and faunae that their every need was met.

He also begat and brought up five pairs of twin male children; and dividing the island of Atlantis into ten portions, he gave to the first-born of the eldest pair his mother's dwelling and the surrounding allotment, which was the largest and best, and made him king over the rest; the others he made princes, and gave them rule over many men, and a large territory. And he named them all; the eldest, who was the first king, he named Atlas, and after him the whole island and the ocean were called Atlantic. To his twin brother, who was born after him, and obtained as his lot the extremity of the island towards the Pillars of Heracles, facing the country which is now called the region of Gades in that part of the world, he gave the name which in the Hellenic language is Eumelus, in the language of the country which is named after him, Gadeirus. Of the second pair of twins he called one Ampheres, and the other Evaemon. To the elder of the third pair of twins he gave the name Mneseus, and Autochthon to the one who followed him. Of the fourth pair of twins he called the elder Elasippus, and the younger Mestor. And of the fifth pair he gave to the elder the name of Azaes, and to the younger that of Diaprepes. All these and their descendants for many generations were the inhabitants and rulers of divers islands in the open sea; and also, as has been already said, they held sway in our direction over the country within the Pillars as far as Egypt and Tyrrhenia.8

Atlas, in the Greek myths, was actually a titan, one of the original deities who ruled over Earth before the Olympic gods (Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, etc.) overthrew them and took supremacy over Earth. The titans of the Greek myths were giants of great stature that ruled over a "golden age" of mankind: "The Golden Age of mankind lived during the rule of Kronos and the Titanes. This race of man was created by Prometheus and lived in peace and harmony, blessed with the fruits of the earth which grew freely in a garden of Eden-like paradise."9 However, all was not well in Paradise, as the titans did not share their power freely: "The Titanes were jealous of their privileges and refused to devolve any power to the younger generations of gods. Zeus led these in rebellion and after a violent ten year war the Titanes were overthrown and cast into Tartaros."10 Tartaros is the Greek word for "hell" or "abyss", the same place where the archangels threw the fallen angels after they had intermarried with women and brought such violence and corruption to Earth. (1 Enoch 10:1-16, cf. also 2 Peter 2:5)

So Plato's account of Atlantis so far matches Moses and Enoch's descriptions of the antediluvian world point for point: divine beings were given rule over various parts of Earth, and they intermarried with human females, who gave birth to giants. Up to this point, however, the account is different on one important point. In the Critias, Atlantis was a place of earthly paradise, set up by Poseidon to be an ideal place for his progeny to live. However, at the end of the narrative, Plato's account of the rise of Atlantis then turns to its fall, and our next point of collusion is matched perfectly:

For many generations, as long as the divine nature lasted in them, they were obedient to the laws, and well-affectioned towards the god, whose seed they were; for they possessed true and in every way great spirits, uniting gentleness with wisdom in the various chances of life, and in their intercourse with one another. They despised everything but virtue, caring little for their present state of life, and thinking lightly of the possession of gold and other property, which seemed only a burden to them; neither were they intoxicated by luxury; nor did wealth deprive them of their self-control; but they were sober, and saw clearly that all these goods are increased by virtue and friendship with one another, whereas by too great regard and respect for them, they are lost and friendship with them. By such reflections and by the continuance in them of a divine nature, the qualities which we have described grew and increased among them; but when the divine portion began to fade away, and became diluted too often and too much with the mortal admixture, and the human nature got the upper hand, they then, being unable to bear their fortune, behaved unseemly, and to him who had an eye to see grew visibly debased, for they were losing the fairest of their precious gifts; but to those who had no eye to see the true happiness, they appeared glorious and blessed at the very time when they were full of avarice and unrighteous power.11

Just like the Nephilim, the titans grew more and more abased as they continued to intermarry with humans, becoming twisted, abhorrent travesties of their formerly glorious selves. Just as good as they were in the beginning, they became irretrievably evil, with an unbridled lust for power and wealth that led to a mighty thirst for conquest. The "gods" of Atlantis wished to extend their power beyond their divinely mandated boundaries, and thus risked the judgment of God. Their decision to wage war on Europe and Asia in order to dominate the world, causing great corruption and disorder in the process, was an indicator that these deities had gone too far and were in need of chastisement. The final point of collusion in the two accounts, the biblical and the Platonic, now comes to the fore, as Zeus, leader of the Greek gods, convenes a council in heaven and decides to punish the Atlanteans for their unbridled hubris:

Zeus, the god of gods, who rules according to law, and is able to see into such things, perceiving that an honourable race was in a woeful plight, and wanting to inflict punishment on them, that they might be chastened and improve, collected all the gods into their most holy habitation, which, being placed in the centre of the world, beholds all created things. And when he had called them together, he spake as follows-*12

The final point of collusion involves judgment upon mankind for their wickedness, the final and perhaps most important parallel between the biblical and Platonic accounts. Unfortunately, the remainder of the story is not available, as it is either lost, or it was never written down from the oral tradition, as the rest of the story had been. Perhaps the Greeks felt that the imformation it contained was too dangerous for humanity to know, and expunged it from human memory, just as Moses had carefully edited out much of the details concerning the antedeluvian world. Even the Book of Enoch was not included in the canon of Scripture, probably for the same reason — the information it contained was simply too dangerous, raising many questions that perhaps ought not be considered. Perhaps, hidden deep away in the dark places of their psyches, scholars know all too well the implications of these ancient texts. The Watchers never died, they were simply placed in chains in the Abyss, waiting for the time when they would be released again once more to wreak havoc upon the Earth. And though the giants of the antediluvian world were destroyed, their fathers, the Watchers, were not. And as proof of their continued workings upon the Earth, the giants reappeared during the time of Moses and, some say, it is likely they will return again.

There were giants in the earth in those days — and also afterwards....

The Legend of Atlantis Part I: Atlantis in History
Part III: Edgar Cayce's Atlantis | Part IV: Atlantis Rising

Editorial | Fragments | Shasta II | Sea Serpents II | Atlantis II
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1 Judd H. Burton, "Nephilim" (Encyclopedia Mythica:

2 Krista M. Baker, "Watchers/Nephilim (Naphidim)" (Delusions of Grandeur:

3 Plato, Critias (The Active Mind:

4 Mike Heiser, "Deuteronomy 32:8 and the Sons of God" (PDF) (The Facade:

5 Plato, Critias (The Active Mind:

6 Plato, Critias (The Active Mind:

7 Plato, Critias (The Active Mind:

8 Plato, Critias (The Active Mind:

9 Aaron Atsma, "The Theoi Titans" (Theoi Project: A Guide to Greek Gods, Spirits & Monsters:

10 Aaron Atsma, "The Theoi Titans" (Theoi Project: A Guide to Greek Gods, Spirits & Monsters:

11 Plato, Critias (The Active Mind:

12 Plato, Critias (The Active Mind:


Genesis 6
Enuma Elish
The Apocrypha
The Book of Enoch
The Dead Sea Scrolls

Plato: Timaeus & Critias
Atlantis - The Lost Continent Finally Found
Atlantis Discovered
Atlantis History: Descendants of the Legendary Lost Continent of Atlantis
The Skeptic's Dictionary: Atlantis
Atlantis in the Caribbean
Atlantis' Lost City and the Lost Continent Finally Found!
Atlantis - Fact, Fiction or Exaggeration?
Atlantis: Vital Statistics
Atlantis, Lost City Found Off Cuba
Brian Taylor: Atlantis
Atlantis Rising: Forums
ATLANTIS: Ice Age Civilization
Atlantide Home
Atlantis Revealed
The Talk.Origins Archive: Atlantis Atlantis
The Sphinx Temple: Atlantis
Spirit of Atlantis Project
Was This Atlantis?
Atlantis: Various Theories
Santorini and the Legend of Atlantis
Starbuck: Atlantis: The Great Lost Civilization
Starbuck: Atlantis: The Great Lost Civilization
SpiritWeb: Atlantis, Mu and Lemuria

The gods of the Nations
Greek Myths
Greek Pantheon
The Titans

Atlantis Resort Atlantis
Atlantis Adventures
Instanbul Atlantis Hotel
Atlantis Marine World
Key West Ferry

Atlantis Weathergear
Atlantis Outfitters
Captain Slate's Atlantis Dive Center

Editorial | Fragments | Shasta II | Sea Serpents II | Atlantis II
Register for our new Hall of Records Newsletter!
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Atlantis: The Antediluvian World
Ignatius Donnelly, Everett F. Bleiler (Editor)
This is the book that started it all, written a century ago by a man as strange and dynamic as his story. Every fantastical image of a sunken paradise, or heated dispute about it's existence and location, all started with these pages. The origin of all Atlantis-hype, this book similarly starts with the origin of the concept itself. Donnely includes a translation of Plato's story that all Atlantean research goes back too. This was the most interesting part of the book, just hearing the first account all discussion and contemplation aside. It is also the most integral part of the book, since out of it comes all of Donnely's extrapolation. (Review by
Click here to buy this book.

Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament with Supplement
James B. Pritchard (Editor)
Prichard's ANET is a standard reference for those examining the cultural setting of the Bible. It contains translations of many important inscriptions which shed light on otherwise mysterious Bible customs. Generally regarded as a scholarly work, it's worth checking out for the layperson as well. Some of the jargon may be a little tricky, but there's no substitute for original source material, which makes up the majority of the book. Besides, some of the stories are just a plain old (very old) good read. Included are such things as the Epic of Gilgamesh (containing our oldest Flood parallels), the Nuzi Texts (which help us understand the life of Jacob, among others), and various of the ancient law codes which have parallels to the biblical code. Tremendously useful for study! (Review by
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The Book of Enoch
Ronald K. Brown (Editor)
This book is a carefully cross referenced exegetical presentation of the writings of the prophet Enoch with other books of the Holy Bible. The book coorborates the with the writers of Holy scriptures and revolutionizes many theological axioms on the Trinity, angels, demons, final judgment, creation, etc. The Book of Enoch gives illumination to the origin of many statements made by Old Testament prophets as well as New Testament writers and prophets. (Review by
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The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English
Geza Vermes (Editor)
It's been 50 years since a Bedouin youth named Muhammed edh-Dhub went looking for a stray sheep and instead found the Dead Sea Scrolls. In the intervening decades, the scrolls have been enveloped in a storm of controversy and bitter conflict: the scholars entrusted with translating and editing the texts sat on many of them instead, creating suspicions that escalated to conspiracy theories about supposed cover-ups of sensitive, even damaging material. Geza Vermes, a former professor of Jewish studies at Oxford and a noted authority on the scrolls, marks the 50th anniversary of Muhammed edh-Dhub's find with his book The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English; the title, however, is misleading, for the collection of documents is by no means complete. Vermes has left out the copies of Hebrew scriptures that are available elsewhere, instead focusing on the sectarian writings of the Essene community at Qumran and the intertestemental texts, and these are indeed complete translations. Vermes has also included an overview of five decades of research on the scrolls and a thumbnail sketch of the Qumran community's history and religion. For anyone interested in biblical history, The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English is a worthwhile read. (Review by
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Dore's Illustrations for "Paradise Lost"
Gustave Dore
Gustave Dore's romantic style of illustration, imaginative and richly detailed, was ideally suited to literary subjects. His wood-engraved illustrations for John Milton's monumental epic poem PARADISE LOST--recounting mankind's fall from the grace of God through the work of Satan--were among Dore's finest works. This volume presents superb black-and-white reproductions of all 50 plates.
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The Dore Bible Illustrations
Gustave Dore
Gustave Dore is perhaps the penultimate artist in the field of ancient and biblical artwork. His artwork has set the standard for all others to compare with, a standard that no one has even approached. His sensitivity to detail, use of light and shadow, natural objects and the human form, are almost unparalleled in the world of art. Whether you are looking for a source of quality biblical imagery or are just a lover of fine art, The Dore Bible Illustrations is a must have for your collection.
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Timaeus and Critias (Penguin Classics)
Plato, H.D. Lee (Editor)
The complete text of Plato's Timaeus and Critias dialogues. Always the best place to start for any would-be Atlantean researcher.
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The Gods of the Nations: Studies in Ancient Near Eastern National Theology
Daniel Isaac Block, Alan R. Millard
In this groundbreaking and very important work, Block very thoroughly outlines the concept of deities, or "gods" being specifically associated with physical territories in the religions of the ancient Near East. The myths and religious doctrines of the ancient world, including the Bible, clearly taught that each nation had its own patron deity, and that these deities often fought with each other over control over each other's territories. Block's coverage is thorough and even handed scholarly work, which is a must-have for any biblical and/or ancient Near Eastern library, lay or scholarly alike.
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The Atlantis Dialogue : The Original Story of the Lost Empire
Plato, B. Jowett (Editor), Aaron Shepard
Atlantis was first introduced to world literature by the Greek philosopher Plato in two "dialogues" he wrote in the fourth century B.C. His tale of a great empire that sank beneath the waves has sparked thousands of years of debate over whether Atlantis really existed. But did Plato mean his tale as history, or just as a parable to help illustrate his philosophy? In this book, you'll find everything Plato said about Atlantis, in the context he intended. Now you can read and judge for yourself! (Review by
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Atlantis Destroyed
Rodney Castleden
Castleden, working with Plato's Critias, historical and contemporary scholarly works, and his own speculation, seeks to identify the fabled island of Atlantis and set it within a greater political-literary context. As Castleden explains, the story of Atlantis dates from before Plato, back to the priests of Sais in Egypt and then into the mists. But it is a close reading of Plato's rendering on which Castleden bases his conclusions. (Review by
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